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NUMA与PCI

NUMA PCI mapping
NUMA与PCI之间的关系:

多物理CPU之间通过QPI总线进行通信

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# lspci -s 02:0.0 -vv
02:00.0 VGA compatible controller: xxx [VGA controller])
Physical Slot: 2
...
Latency: 0
Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 240
NUMA node: 0 #不同的pci卡槽对应的node节点可能不同,与其绑定的CPU相关

在不同的NUMA node下的pci设备进行内存读写时速度与响应时间存在差异,相同的NUMA node节点下的设备与内存的读写效果会更好。

例如,如果客户机被固定在NUMA节点0-1上,但是其PCI设备中的一个隶属于节点2,那么节点之间的数据传输将花费一段时间。

lstopo命令可以查看系统的硬件拓扑结构

安装lstopo命令

  • ubuntu

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    sudo apt install hwloc
  • centos

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    sudo yum install hwloc-gui

示例

lstopo my pc

lstopo test

虚拟机中资源的最佳分布

虚拟机所使用的到的所有硬件资源尽可能的分布在同一个node节点之上,这样将提高设备的利用率和虚拟机性能

VM Resources Mapping

CPU与内存吞吐量测试

Intel处理器测试工具:Processor Counter Monitor

  • 内存的读写速度
  • 多物理CPU之间的QPI速度
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pcm-202009]# ls ./pcm-*.x
./pcm-core.x ./pcm-latency.x ./pcm-memory.x ./pcm-msr.x ./pcm-pcicfg.x ./pcm-power.x ./pcm-sensor-server.x ./pcm-tsx.x
./pcm-iio.x ./pcm-lspci.x ./pcm-mmio.x ./pcm-numa.x ./pcm-pcie.x ./pcm-raw.x ./pcm-sensor.x
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# ./pcm.x 20

Processor Counter Monitor (2020-10-01 16:31:57 +0200 ID=f510546)


IBRS and IBPB supported : yes
STIBP supported : yes
Spec arch caps supported : yes
Number of physical cores: 32
Number of logical cores: 64
Number of online logical cores: 64
Threads (logical cores) per physical core: 2
Num sockets: 2
Physical cores per socket: 16
Core PMU (perfmon) version: 4
Number of core PMU generic (programmable) counters: 4
Width of generic (programmable) counters: 48 bits
Number of core PMU fixed counters: 3
Width of fixed counters: 48 bits
Nominal core frequency: 2300000000 Hz
IBRS enabled in the kernel : no
STIBP enabled in the kernel : no
The processor is not susceptible to Rogue Data Cache Load: yes
The processor supports enhanced IBRS : yes
Package thermal spec power: 125 Watt; Package minimum power: 68 Watt; Package maximum power: 307 Watt;
Socket 0: 2 memory controllers detected with total number of 6 channels. 3 QPI ports detected. 2 M2M (mesh to memory) blocks detected. 0 Home Agents detected. 3 M3UPI blocks detected.
Socket 1: 2 memory controllers detected with total number of 6 channels. 3 QPI ports detected. 2 M2M (mesh to memory) blocks detected. 0 Home Agents detected. 3 M3UPI blocks detected.
Delay: 20
Disabling NMI watchdog since it consumes one hw-PMU counter.
Trying to use Linux perf events...
Successfully programmed on-core PMU using Linux perf
Link 3 is disabled
Link 3 is disabled
Socket 0
Max QPI link 0 speed: 23.3 GBytes/second (10.4 GT/second)
Max QPI link 1 speed: 23.3 GBytes/second (10.4 GT/second)
Socket 1
Max QPI link 0 speed: 23.3 GBytes/second (10.4 GT/second)
Max QPI link 1 speed: 23.3 GBytes/second (10.4 GT/second)

Detected Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 5218 CPU @ 2.30GHz "Intel(r) microarchitecture codename Cascade Lake-SP" stepping 7 microcode level 0x5002f01

EXEC : instructions per nominal CPU cycle
IPC : instructions per CPU cycle
FREQ : relation to nominal CPU frequency='unhalted clock ticks'/'invariant timer ticks' (includes Intel Turbo Boost)
AFREQ : relation to nominal CPU frequency while in active state (not in power-saving C state)='unhalted clock ticks'/'invariant timer ticks while in C0-state' (includes Intel Turbo Boost)
L3MISS: L3 (read) cache misses
L2MISS: L2 (read) cache misses (including other core's L2 cache *hits*)
L3HIT : L3 (read) cache hit ratio (0.00-1.00)
L2HIT : L2 cache hit ratio (0.00-1.00)
L3MPI : number of L3 (read) cache misses per instruction
L2MPI : number of L2 (read) cache misses per instruction
READ : bytes read from main memory controller (in GBytes)
WRITE : bytes written to main memory controller (in GBytes)
LOCAL : ratio of local memory requests to memory controller in %
LLCRDMISSLAT: average latency of last level cache miss for reads and prefetches (in ns)
PMM RD : bytes read from PMM memory (in GBytes)
PMM WR : bytes written to PMM memory (in GBytes)
L3OCC : L3 occupancy (in KBytes)
TEMP : Temperature reading in 1 degree Celsius relative to the TjMax temperature (thermal headroom): 0 corresponds to the max temperature
energy: Energy in Joules


Core (SKT) | EXEC | IPC | FREQ | AFREQ | L3MISS | L2MISS | L3HIT | L2HIT | L3MPI | L2MPI | L3OCC | TEMP

0 0 0.02 0.50 0.03 1.26 926 K 9825 K 0.89 0.42 0.00 0.01 128 43
1 1 0.03 0.67 0.05 0.84 4930 K 6272 K 0.14 0.63 0.00 0.00 320 55
2 0 0.22 0.81 0.28 1.05 5539 K 12 M 0.53 0.79 0.00 0.00 1472 54
3 1 0.00 0.29 0.00 1.33 23 K 44 K 0.38 0.86 0.00 0.00 0 47
4 0 0.14 0.84 0.17 0.96 3001 K 7083 K 0.53 0.79 0.00 0.00 640 49
5 1 0.01 0.53 0.03 0.99 129 K 2453 K 0.93 0.61 0.00 0.00 256 61
6 0 0.21 0.85 0.25 1.04 5115 K 11 M 0.50 0.80 0.00 0.00 384 54
7 1 0.03 0.55 0.05 1.10 273 K 4573 K 0.93 0.60 0.00 0.00 1344 57
8 0 0.21 0.80 0.26 1.06 5361 K 11 M 0.49 0.80 0.00 0.00 1216 54
9 1 0.09 0.57 0.16 1.32 769 K 14 M 0.94 0.65 0.00 0.00 2048 57
10 0 0.21 0.74 0.29 1.26 7000 K 14 M 0.48 0.79 0.00 0.00 256 52
11 1 0.02 0.44 0.04 1.30 1072 K 2780 K 0.36 0.62 0.00 0.00 0 54
12 0 0.20 0.84 0.23 1.08 4916 K 11 M 0.50 0.78 0.00 0.00 640 53
13 1 0.01 0.55 0.03 1.06 158 K 2583 K 0.92 0.61 0.00 0.00 192 57
14 0 0.14 0.70 0.20 1.26 2654 K 7546 K 0.58 0.81 0.00 0.00 1664 52
15 1 0.00 0.52 0.01 0.78 54 K 897 K 0.78 0.57 0.00 0.00 0 54
16 0 0.11 0.74 0.14 0.96 2978 K 7413 K 0.54 0.78 0.00 0.00 3328 53
17 1 0.00 0.50 0.01 0.80 38 K 610 K 0.79 0.57 0.00 0.00 0 59
18 0 0.15 0.69 0.22 1.00 5981 K 12 M 0.45 0.78 0.00 0.00 2368 53
19 1 0.13 2.30 0.06 1.07 186 K 952 K 0.79 0.53 0.00 0.00 128 58
20 0 0.11 0.74 0.14 0.87 5408 K 10 M 0.43 0.74 0.00 0.00 4928 52
21 1 0.01 0.44 0.03 1.05 1742 K 2476 K 0.22 0.74 0.00 0.00 448 55
22 0 0.20 0.84 0.23 0.98 4198 K 9626 K 0.51 0.81 0.00 0.00 576 55
23 1 0.00 0.87 0.00 0.52 191 K 316 K 0.37 0.59 0.00 0.00 192 60
24 0 0.15 0.86 0.17 1.05 2357 K 6482 K 0.58 0.80 0.00 0.00 384 52
25 1 0.01 1.18 0.00 0.50 123 K 275 K 0.49 0.82 0.00 0.00 0 59
26 0 0.12 0.76 0.16 1.02 4988 K 10 M 0.43 0.77 0.00 0.00 704 52
27 1 0.01 1.06 0.01 0.69 125 K 1009 K 0.87 0.63 0.00 0.00 0 55
28 0 0.15 0.83 0.18 0.99 4284 K 9017 K 0.46 0.79 0.00 0.00 1792 53

参考

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  • 本文作者: Winddoing
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