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uboot

Bootloader 是在操作系统运行之前执行的一段小程序。通过这段小程序,我们可以初始化硬件设备、建立内存空间的映射表,从而建立适当的系统软硬件环境,为最终调用操作系统内核做好准备。

uboot引导系统启动, UBoot包含两个阶段的启动,一个是SPL启动,一个是正常的启动我们称为第二阶段Uboot。当然,我们也可以选择使用SPL和不使用,主要根据CPU中的SRAM(或者cache,bootram阶段需要初始化完成)的大小,如果不能放下uboot大小,则必须先使用SPL启动,进行DDR的初始化,以获取更大的可以空间。

Version: u-boot-201307

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+----------------+-----------------------------------+
| | |
| spl | uboot |
| | |
+----------------+-----------------------------------+

在编译的过程中,这两个阶段通过CONFIG_SPL_BUILD宏将编译分离。拥有不同的配置,所以许多地方的宏是和SPL的不一样。而且链接的文件也不一致。

  • SPL:

    1
    ./arch/mips/cpu/xburst/x1000/u-boot-spl.lds
  • uboot:

    1
    /arch/mips/cpu/u-boot.lds

目的

uboot stage

流程:

uboot boot

SPL

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u-boot-spl.lds
ENTRY: _start (start.S)
\->board_init_f (soc.c)
->board_init_r (spl.c)

u-boot-spl.lds

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#define CONFIG_SPL_TEXT_BASE        0xf4001000
#define CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE (12 * 1024)
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MEMORY { .sram : ORIGIN = CONFIG_SPL_TEXT_BASE,\
LENGTH = CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE }

OUTPUT_ARCH(mips)
ENTRY(_start)
SECTIONS
{
.text :
{
__start = .;
*(.start_section*)
*(.text*)
} >.sram
...

.bss : {
. = ALIGN(4);
__bss_start = .;
*(.sbss.*)
*(.bss.*)
*(COMMON)
. = ALIGN(4);
__bss_end = .;
} >.sram
...
}

u-boot-spl.lds

在bootram将SPL搬到静态ram中后,执行SPL的代码将从_start开始。

start.S

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#define RESERVED_FOR_SC(x) .space 1536, x

.set noreorder

.globl _start
.section .start_section
_start:
/* magic value ("MSPL") */
.word 0x4d53504c
.space 508, 0
RESERVED_FOR_SC(0)

#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_VERSION
.word (0x00000000 | CONFIG_SPL_VERSION)
.space (512-20),0
#else
.space (512-16),0
#endif

/* Invalidate BTB */
mfc0 v0, CP0_CONFIG, 7
nop
ori v0, v0, 2 /* MMU类型:BAT类型*/
mtc0 v0, CP0_CONFIG, 7
nop

/*
* CU0=UM=EXL=IE=0, BEV=ERL=1, IP2~7=1
*/
li t0, 0x0040FC04
mtc0 t0, CP0_STATUS

/* CAUSE register */
/* IV=1, use the specical interrupt vector (0x200) */
li t1, 0x00800000
mtc0 t1, CP0_CAUSE

.set push
.set mips32
init_caches:
li t0, CONF_CM_CACHABLE_NONCOHERENT
mtc0 t0, CP0_CONFIG
nop

/* enable idx-store-data cache insn */
li t0, 0x20000000
mtc0 t0, CP0_ECC

li t1, KSEG0 /* Start address */
#define CACHE_ALLOC_END (CONFIG_SYS_DCACHE_SIZE)

ori t2, t1, CACHE_ALLOC_END /* End address */
mtc0 zero, CP0_TAGLO, 0
mtc0 zero, CP0_TAGLO, 1
cache_clear_a_line:
cache INDEX_STORE_TAG_I, 0(t1)
cache INDEX_STORE_TAG_D, 0(t1)
addiu t1, t1, CONFIG_SYS_CACHELINE_SIZE
bne t1, t2, cache_clear_a_line
nop
.set pop

/* Set up stack */
#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_STACK
li sp, CONFIG_SPL_STACK
#endif

j board_init_f
nop

start.S

  1. 设置spl的空间布局,加载识别区域,SC填充区域等
  2. 选择MMU类型
  3. 通过SR,使能异常向量和配置中断屏蔽位
  4. 配置一个特殊的中断异常入口(0x200)
  5. 初始化cache
  6. 跳转board_init_f

soc.c

数据结构

bd_t

保存板子参数

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typedef struct bd_info {
unsigned int bi_baudrate; /*serial console baudrate*/
unsigned long bi_arch_number; /*unique id for this board*/
unsigned long bi_boot_params; /*where this board expects params*/
unsigned long bi_memstart; /*start of DRAM memory*/
phys_size_t bi_memsize; /*size of DRAM memory in bytes*/
unsigned long bi_flashstart; /*start of FLASH memory*/
unsigned long bi_flashsize; /*size of FLASH memory*/
unsigned long bi_flashoffset; /*reserved area for startup monitor*/
} bd_t;

file: arch/mips/include/asm/u-boot.h

gd_t

全局的系统初始化参数

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typedef struct global_data {
bd_t *bd;
unsigned long flags;
unsigned int baudrate;
unsigned long cpu_clk; /* CPU clock in Hz! */
unsigned long bus_clk;
/* We cannot bracket this with CONFIG_PCI due to mpc5xxx */
unsigned long pci_clk;
unsigned long mem_clk;
#if defined(CONFIG_LCD) || defined(CONFIG_VIDEO)
unsigned long fb_base; /* Base address of framebuffer mem */
#endif
...
#ifdef CONFIG_BOARD_TYPES
unsigned long board_type;
#endif
unsigned long have_console; /* serial_init() was called */
#ifdef CONFIG_PRE_CONSOLE_BUFFER
unsigned long precon_buf_idx; /* Pre-Console buffer index */
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_MODEM_SUPPORT
unsigned long do_mdm_init;
unsigned long be_quiet;
#endif
unsigned long env_addr; /* Address of Environment struct */
unsigned long env_valid; /* Checksum of Environment valid? */

unsigned long ram_top; /* Top address of RAM used by U-Boot */

unsigned long relocaddr; /* Start address of U-Boot in RAM */
phys_size_t ram_size; /* RAM size */
unsigned long mon_len; /* monitor len */
unsigned long irq_sp; /* irq stack pointer */
unsigned long start_addr_sp; /* start_addr_stackpointer */
unsigned long reloc_off;
struct global_data *new_gd; /* relocated global data */
const void *fdt_blob; /* Our device tree, NULL if none */
void *new_fdt; /* Relocated FDT */
unsigned long fdt_size; /* Space reserved for relocated FDT */
void **jt; /* jump table */
char env_buf[32]; /* buffer for getenv() before reloc. */
#ifdef CONFIG_TRACE
void *trace_buff; /* The trace buffer */
#endif
struct arch_global_data arch; /* architecture-specific data */
} gd_t;

file: include/asm-generic/global_data.h

board_init_f

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void board_init_f(ulong dummy)
{
/*Set global data pointer*/
gd = &gdata;

/*Setup global info*/
gd->arch.gi = &ginfo;

gpio_init();

/*Init uart first*/
enable_uart_clk();

#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_SERIAL_SUPPORT
preloader_console_init();
#endif
printf("ERROR EPC %x\n", read_c0_errorepc());

debug("Timer init\n");
timer_init();

#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_CORE_VOLTAGE
debug("Set core voltage:%dmv\n", CONFIG_SPL_CORE_VOLTAGE);
spl_regulator_set_voltage(REGULATOR_CORE, CONFIG_SPL_CORE_VOLTAGE);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_MEM_VOLTAGE
debug("Set mem voltage:%dmv\n", CONFIG_SPL_MEM_VOLTAGE);
spl_regulator_set_voltage(REGULATOR_MEM, CONFIG_SPL_MEM_VOLTAGE);
#endif

debug("CLK stop\n");
clk_prepare();

debug("PLL init\n");
pll_init();

debug("CLK init\n");
clk_init();

#ifdef CONFIG_HW_WATCHDOG
debug("WATCHDOG init\n");
hw_watchdog_init();
#endif
debug("SDRAM init\n");
sdram_init();

#ifdef CONFIG_DDR_TEST
ddr_basic_tests();
#endif

/*Clear the BSS*/
memset(__bss_start, 0, (char *)&__bss_end - __bss_start);

debug("board_init_r\n");
board_init_r(NULL, 0);
}

file: arch/mips/cpu/xburst/x1000/soc.c

  1. 初始化GPIO
  2. 使能串口时钟,初始化串口
  3. 初始化timer
  4. 初始化时钟,配置CPU,DDR和外设的时钟大小
  5. 初始化看门狗
  6. 初始化DDR
  7. 清除BSS段
ginfo
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#include <asm-generic/global_data.h>
#define DECLARE_GLOBAL_DATA_PTR register volatile gd_t *gd asm ("k0")

DECLARE_GLOBAL_DATA_PTR;
gd_t gdata __attribute__ ((section(".data")));

struct global_info ginfo __attribute__ ((section(".data"))) = {
.extal = CONFIG_SYS_EXTAL,
.cpufreq = CONFIG_SYS_CPU_FREQ,
.ddrfreq = CONFIG_SYS_MEM_FREQ,
.uart_idx = CONFIG_SYS_UART_INDEX,
.baud_rate = CONFIG_BAUDRATE,
...
}

系统信息的结构体 (gd 是指 Global Data, bd 是指 Board info Data) 应该存放于在 DRAM 控制器未初始化之前就能使用的空间中,比如TCSM中。

为什么要清除BSS段?
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/* Clear the BSS */
memset(__bss_start, 0, (char *)&__bss_end - __bss_start);

可执行程序包括BSS段、代码段、数据段。BSS(Block Started by Symbol)通常指用来存放程序中未初始化的全局变量和静态变量的一块内存区域,特点是可读可写,在程序执行之前BSS段会自动清0。所以,未初始化的全局变量在程序执行之前已经成0

bss段起源于unix中。变量分两种,全局变量局部变量。局部变量是保留在栈中的,根据C语言规定,如果对局部变量不进行初始化,初始值是不确定的,在栈中位置也不固定。全局变量有专门的数据段存储,且初始化值为0,且位置是固定的。综上,数据分为俩种,位置固定(全局,数据段)位置不固定(局部-栈里)

其实,数据段里的这么多全局变量都初始化为0存在目标文件中是没有必要的,增大了存储空间使用。所以就把数据段里边数据,也即未初始化全局变量存放到了BSS段里边. 并未占有真正的空间。当有目标文件被载入的时候,清除bss段,将全局变量清0, 其实也是在为bss段分配空间.

board_init_r

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void board_init_r(gd_t *dummy1, ulong dummy2)
{
u32 boot_device;
char *cmdargs = NULL;
debug(">>spl:board_init_r()\n");

#ifdef CONFIG_SYS_SPL_MALLOC_START
mem_malloc_init(CONFIG_SYS_SPL_MALLOC_START,
CONFIG_SYS_SPL_MALLOC_SIZE);
#endif

#ifndef CONFIG_PPC
/*
* timer_init() does not exist on PPC systems. The timer is initialized
* and enabled (decrementer) in interrupt_init() here.
*/
timer_init();
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_BOARD_INIT
spl_board_init();
#endif
boot_device = spl_boot_device();
debug("boot device - %d\n", boot_device);
#ifdef CONFIG_PALLADIUM
spl_board_prepare_for_linux();
#endif
switch (boot_device) {
case BOOT_DEVICE_MMC1:
case BOOT_DEVICE_MMC2:
case BOOT_DEVICE_MMC2_2:
spl_mmc_load_image();
break;
...
default:
debug("SPL: Un-supported Boot Device\n");
hang();
}

switch (spl_image.os) {
case IH_OS_U_BOOT:
debug("Jumping to U-Boot\n");
break;
#ifdef CONFIG_SPL_OS_BOOT
case IH_OS_LINUX:
debug("Jumping to Linux\n");
spl_board_prepare_for_linux();

cmdargs = cmdargs ? cmdargs : CONFIG_SYS_SPL_ARGS_ADDR;
cmdargs = spl_board_process_bootargs(cmdargs);

debug("get cmdargs: %s.\n", cmdargs);
jump_to_image_linux((void *)cmdargs);
#endif
default:
debug("Unsupported OS image.. Jumping nevertheless..\n");
}

jump_to_image_no_args(&spl_image);
}

file: common/spl/spl.c

  1. 从存储介质(sd/emmc)读取uboot,并跳转到uboot执行
  2. 在SPL运行完后,已可以直接加载kernel或相应的BIN文件执行

执行C代码所必需的条件或者环境?

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la  sp, STACK_TOP   // sp
j main
nop
  1. 禁止看门狗,防止CPU不断的重启
  2. 设置堆栈

SPL执行阶段其栈空间的位置?

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   TCSM
+-------------+ <-+ 0xb2400000
| .data .bss | 4K
+----------+--+ <-+ 0xb2401000
| stack | | 4K
+----------v--+ <-+ 0xb2402000
| |
| |
| |
| load spl | 24KB
| |
| |
| |
| |
+-------------+ <-+ 0xb2408000

CPU上电后,在bootrom中执行时,由于其是固化的代码段(只读)。因此在上电初期将Data段,BSS段以及栈指定到TCSM中(一个静态RAM,CPU上电即可以使用)。bootrom中一些外围设备如sd boot的SD控制器等初始化完成后,在SD卡中将SPL加载到TCSM中,bootrom的PC跳入SPL进行执行,此时依然使用bootrom的栈空间

uboot

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u-boot.lds
__start (start.S)
->board_init_f (arch/mips/lib/board.c)
->relocate_code (start.S)
->board_init_r (arch/mips/lib/board.c)

u-boot.lds

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OUTPUT_ARCH(mips)
ENTRY(_start)
SECTIONS
{
. = 0x00000000;

. = ALIGN(4);
.text : {
*(.text*)
}
...
. = ALIGN(4);
.data : {
*(.data*)
}

. = .;
_gp = ALIGN(16) + 0x7ff0; /*32KB*/

...

u-boot.lds

start.S

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#define CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE       0x80000000 /* cached (KSEG0) address */
#define CONFIG_SYS_INIT_SP_OFFSET 0x400000
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.set noreorder

.globl _start
.text
_start:
/* Initialize $gp */
bal 1f
nop
.word _gp
1:
lw gp, 0(ra)

/* Set up temporary stack */
li sp, CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE + CONFIG_SYS_INIT_SP_OFFSET

la t9, board_init_f
jr t9
nop

start.S

  1. 重新设置栈指针0x80400000,
  2. 跳转board_init_f

CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE = 0x8000 0000 ,是 MIPS 虚拟寻址空间中kseg0段的起始地址(参考《 See MIPS Run 》),它经过 CPU TLB 翻译后是 DRAM 内存的起始物理地址。

为什么不直接跳转,而使用jr

这样就可以知道代码的位置,而不是标号值。

board.c

uboot内存布局:

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#define CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE       0x80000000 /* cached (KSEG0) address */
#define CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_MAX_TOP 0x90000000 /* don't run into IO space */
#define CONFIG_SYS_INIT_SP_OFFSET 0x400000
#define CONFIG_SYS_LOAD_ADDR 0x88000000
#define CONFIG_SYS_MEMTEST_START 0x80000000
#define CONFIG_SYS_MEMTEST_END 0x88000000
#define CONFIG_SYS_TEXT_BASE 0x80100000
#define CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE CONFIG_SYS_TEXT_BASE
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+-------------------+ <-+ 0x9000 0000
| |
| |
| |
| LOAD_ADDR |
| |
| |
+-------------------+ <-+ 0x8800 0000
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
+-------------------+ <-+ 0x8040 0000
| |
| STACK |
| |
+-------------------+ <-+ 0x8010 0000
| TEXT BASE |
+-------------------+ <-+ 0x8000 0000

board_init_f

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void board_init_f(ulong bootflag)
{
gd_t gd_data, *id;
bd_t *bd;
init_fnc_t **init_fnc_ptr;
ulong addr, addr_sp, len;
ulong *s;

/* Pointer is writable since we allocated a register for it.
*/
gd = &gd_data;
/* compiler optimization barrier needed for GCC >= 3.4 */
__asm__ __volatile__("" : : : "memory");

memset((void *)gd, 0, sizeof(gd_t));

for (init_fnc_ptr = init_sequence; *init_fnc_ptr; ++init_fnc_ptr) {
if ((*init_fnc_ptr)() != 0)
hang();
}

/*
* Now that we have DRAM mapped and working, we can
* relocate the code and continue running from DRAM.
*/
addr = CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE + gd->ram_size;
#ifdef CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_MAX_TOP
addr = MIN(addr, CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_MAX_TOP);
#endif

/* We can reserve some RAM "on top" here.
*/

/* round down to next 4 kB limit.
*/
addr &= ~(4096 - 1); //addr &= ~0x0FFF 这种计算是常用的地址对齐,向下 4K 字节对齐
printf("Top of RAM usable for U-Boot at: %08lx\n", addr);
#ifdef CONFIG_LCD
#ifdef CONFIG_FB_ADDR
gd->fb_base = CONFIG_FB_ADDR;
#else
/* reserve memory for LCD display (always full pages) */
addr = lcd_setmem(addr);
printf("Reserving %ldk for LCDC at: %08lx\n", len >> 10, addr);
gd->fb_base = addr;
#endif /* CONFIG_FB_ADDR */
#endif /* CONFIG_LCD */

/* Reserve memory for U-Boot code, data & bss
* round down to next 16 kB limit
*/
len = bss_end() - CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE;
addr -= len;
addr &= ~(16 * 1024 - 1); // 向下 64K 字节对齐

printf("Reserving %ldk for U-Boot at: %08lx\n", len >> 10, addr);

/* Reserve memory for malloc() arena.
*/
addr_sp = addr - TOTAL_MALLOC_LEN; // 划分 malloc() 使用的空间,即所谓的堆空间
printf("Reserving %dk for malloc() at: %08lx\n",
TOTAL_MALLOC_LEN >> 10, addr_sp);

/*
* (permanently) allocate a Board Info struct
* and a permanent copy of the "global" data
*/
addr_sp -= sizeof(bd_t);
bd = (bd_t *)addr_sp;
gd->bd = bd;
printf("Reserving %zu Bytes for Board Info at: %08lx\n",
sizeof(bd_t), addr_sp);

addr_sp -= sizeof(gd_t);
id = (gd_t *)addr_sp;
printf("Reserving %zu Bytes for Global Data at: %08lx\n",
sizeof(gd_t), addr_sp);

/* Reserve memory for boot params.
*/
addr_sp -= CONFIG_SYS_BOOTPARAMS_LEN;
bd->bi_boot_params = addr_sp;
printf("Reserving %dk for boot params() at: %08lx\n",
CONFIG_SYS_BOOTPARAMS_LEN >> 10, addr_sp);

/*
* Finally, we set up a new (bigger) stack.
*
* Leave some safety gap for SP, force alignment on 16 byte boundary
* Clear initial stack frame
*/
addr_sp -= 16;
addr_sp &= ~0xF; // 栈空间 16 字节对齐
s = (ulong *)addr_sp;
*s-- = 0;
*s-- = 0;
addr_sp = (ulong)s;
printf("Stack Pointer at: %08lx\n", addr_sp);

/*
* Save local variables to board info struct
*/
bd->bi_memstart = CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE; /* start of DRAM */
bd->bi_memsize = gd->ram_size; /* size of DRAM in bytes */
bd->bi_baudrate = gd->baudrate; /* Console Baudrate */

// 将在临时栈空间中的 GD 数据拷贝入 DRAM 中,至此, BD 和 GD 都已经存在于 DRAM 中了
memcpy(id, (void *)gd, sizeof(gd_t));

relocate_code(addr_sp, id, addr);

/*NOTREACHED - relocate_code() does not return*/
}
  • 调用init_sequence 函数队列,对板子进行一些初始化
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/*
* initialization sequence configurable to the user.
*
* The requirements for any new initalization function is simple: it
* receives a pointer to the "global data" structure as it's only
* argument, and returns an integer return code, where 0 means
* "continue" and != 0 means "fatal error, hang the system".
*/
typedef int (init_fnc_t)(void);

init_fnc_t *init_sequence[] = {
board_early_init_f,
timer_init,
env_init, /* initialize environment */
#ifdef CONFIG_INCA_IP
incaip_set_cpuclk, /* set cpu clock according to env. variable */
#endif
init_baudrate, /* initialize baudrate settings */
serial_init, /* serial communications setup */
console_init_f,
display_banner, /* say that we are here */
checkboard,
init_func_ram,
NULL,
};
  • 为uboot在DRAM中执行准备条件

relocate_code

重定位,U-boot运行后将自己的代码段,数据段,BSS 段等搬到DRAM 中的另一个位置继续运行.

目的:

  1. 为kernel腾出内存的低端空间,防止kernel解压覆盖uboot。
  2. 对于由静态存储器(spiflash nandflash)启动,这个relocation是必须的,将代码搬到DRAM中运行
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relocate_code(addr_sp, id, addr);

id: 之前在 U-boot 的 1M 空间中分配的 GD 结构体的地址
addr: U-boot 重新定位到 DRAM 之后的代码起始地址

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/*
* void relocate_code (addr_sp, gd, addr_moni)
*
* This "function" does not return, instead it continues in RAM
* after relocating the monitor code.
*
* a0 = addr_sp
* a1 = gd
* a2 = destination address
*/
.globl relocate_code
.ent relocate_code
relocate_code:
move sp, a0 # set new stack pointer

li t0, CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE
sub t6, a2, t0 # t6 <-- relocation offset

la t3, in_ram
lw t2, -12(t3) # t2 <-- __image_copy_end
move t1, a2

add gp, t6 # adjust gp

/*
* t0 = source address
* t1 = target address
* t2 = source end address
*/
1:
lw t3, 0(t0)
sw t3, 0(t1)
addu t0, 4
blt t0, t2, 1b
addu t1, 4

/* If caches were enabled, we would have to flush them here. */

/* flush d-cache */
li t0, KSEG0
or t1, t0, CONFIG_SYS_DCACHE_SIZE
2:
cache INDEX_WRITEBACK_INV_D, 0(t0)
bne t0, t1, 2b
addi t0, CONFIG_SYS_CACHELINE_SIZE

sync

/* flush i-cache */
li t0, KSEG0
or t1, t0, CONFIG_SYS_ICACHE_SIZE
3:
cache INDEX_INVALIDATE_I, 0(t0)
bne t0, t1, 3b
addi t0, CONFIG_SYS_CACHELINE_SIZE

/* Invalidate BTB */
mfc0 t0, CP0_CONFIG, 7
nop
ori t0, 2
mtc0 t0, CP0_CONFIG, 7
nop

/* Jump to where we've relocated ourselves */
addi t0, a2, in_ram - _start
jr t0
nop

.word __rel_dyn_end
.word __rel_dyn_start
.word __image_copy_end
.word _GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_
.word num_got_entries

in_ram:
/*
* Now we want to update GOT.
*
* GOT[0] is reserved. GOT[1] is also reserved for the dynamic object
* generated by GNU ld. Skip these reserved entries from relocation.
*/
lw t3, -4(t0) # t3 <-- num_got_entries
lw t4, -8(t0) # t4 <-- _GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_
add t4, t6 # t4 now holds relocated _G_O_T_
addi t4, t4, 8 # skipping first two entries
li t2, 2
1:
lw t1, 0(t4)
beqz t1, 2f
add t1, t6
sw t1, 0(t4)
2:
addi t2, 1
blt t2, t3, 1b
addi t4, 4

/* Update dynamic relocations */
lw t1, -16(t0) # t1 <-- __rel_dyn_start
lw t2, -20(t0) # t2 <-- __rel_dyn_end

b 2f # skip first reserved entry
addi t1, 8

1:
lw t3, -4(t1) # t3 <-- relocation info

sub t3, 3
bnez t3, 2f # skip non R_MIPS_REL32 entries
nop

lw t3, -8(t1) # t3 <-- location to fix up in FLASH

lw t4, 0(t3) # t4 <-- original pointer
add t4, t6 # t4 <-- adjusted pointer

add t3, t6 # t3 <-- location to fix up in RAM
sw t4, 0(t3)

2:
blt t1, t2, 1b
addi t1, 8 # each rel.dyn entry is 8 bytes

/*
* Clear BSS
*
* GOT is now relocated. Thus __bss_start and __bss_end can be
* accessed directly via $gp.
*/
la t1, __bss_start # t1 <-- __bss_start
la t2, __bss_end # t2 <-- __bss_end

1:
sw zero, 0(t1)
blt t1, t2, 1b
addi t1, 4

move a0, a1 # a0 <-- gd
la t9, board_init_r
jr t9
move a1, a2

.end relocate_code
  1. 移动gp指针
  2. 复制代码到RAM中
  3. 刷新一下cache
  4. 跳到RAM代码当中去(in_ram),in_ram的主要工作是:更新GOT;清空BSS段;最后跳到board_init_r
疑问
  1. 如何对函数进行寻址调用
  2. 如何对全局变量进行寻址操作(读写)
  3. 对于全局指针变量中存储的其他变量或函数地址在relocation之后如何操作
uboot GOT

GOTs(global offset tables):是uboot能跳转到不同空间运行的原理.

一个完整可运行的bin文件,link时指定的链接地址,load时的加载地址,运行时的运行地址,这3个地址应该是一致的。但是relocation后运行地址不同于加载地址,特别是链接地址,uboot任何进行函数跳转???

compiler在cc时加入-fpic-fpie选项,会在目标文件中生成GOT(global offset table),将本文件中需要relocate的值存放在GOT中,函数尾部的Label来存储GOT的offset以及其中变量的offset,变量寻址首先根据尾部Label相对寻址找到GOT地址,以及变量地址在GOT中的位置,从而确定变量地址,这样对于目标文件统一修改GOT中的值,就修改了变量地址的offset,完成了relocation。

ld时加入-pie选项,就会将GOT并入到rel.dyn段中,uboot在relocate_code中统一根据rel.dyn段修改需要relocation的数值

划分RAM
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+------------------+
| |
| boot params |
+------------------+
| |
| Global Data |
+------------------+
| |
| Board Info |
+------------------+
| |
| mallco(+env) |
+------------------+
| |
| uboot code |
| |
| |
| |
+------------------+

board_init_r

This is the next part if the initialization sequence: we are now running from RAM and have a “normal” C environment, i. e. global data can be written, BSS has been cleared, the stack size in not that critical any more, etc.

此时已在DRAM中运行。

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void board_init_r(gd_t *id, ulong dest_addr)
{
#ifndef CONFIG_SYS_NO_FLASH
ulong size;
#endif
bd_t *bd;

gd = id;
gd->flags |= GD_FLG_RELOC; /* tell others: relocation done */

printf("Now running in RAM - U-Boot at: %08lx\n", dest_addr);

gd->relocaddr = dest_addr;
gd->reloc_off = dest_addr - CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE;

monitor_flash_len = image_copy_end() - dest_addr;

board_early_init_r();

serial_initialize();

bd = gd->bd;

/* The Malloc area is immediately below the monitor copy in DRAM */
mem_malloc_init(CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE + gd->reloc_off -
TOTAL_MALLOC_LEN, TOTAL_MALLOC_LEN);

#ifndef CONFIG_SYS_NO_FLASH
/* configure available FLASH banks */
size = flash_init();
display_flash_config(size);
bd->bi_flashstart = CONFIG_SYS_FLASH_BASE;
bd->bi_flashsize = size;

#if CONFIG_SYS_MONITOR_BASE == CONFIG_SYS_FLASH_BASE
bd->bi_flashoffset = monitor_flash_len; /* reserved area for U-Boot */
#else
bd->bi_flashoffset = 0;
#endif
#else
bd->bi_flashstart = 0;
bd->bi_flashsize = 0;
bd->bi_flashoffset = 0;
#endif
...
#ifdef CONFIG_GENERIC_MMC
puts("MMC: ");
mmc_initialize(bd);
#endif

/* relocate environment function pointers etc. */
env_relocate();


/*leave this here (after malloc(), environment and PCI are working)*/
/* Initialize stdio devices */
stdio_init();

jumptable_init();

/* Initialize the console (after the relocation and devices init) */
console_init_r();

/* Initialize from environment */
load_addr = getenv_ulong("loadaddr", 16, load_addr);


#ifdef CONFIG_USB_GADGET
extern void board_usb_init(void);
board_usb_init();
#endif

#if defined(CONFIG_MISC_INIT_R)
/* miscellaneous platform dependent initialisations */
misc_init_r();
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_BITBANGMII
bb_miiphy_init();
#endif
#if defined(CONFIG_CMD_NET)
puts("Net: ");
eth_initialize(gd->bd);
#endif

/* main_loop() can return to retry autoboot, if so just run it again. */
for (;;)
main_loop();
/*NOTREACHED - no way out of command loop except booting*/
}
  1. 初始化串口
  2. 初始化系统内存分配函数
  3. 如果使用MMC存储介质,初始化MMC设备
  4. 初始化环境变量的指针,将 env_ptr 指针及其指向的地址初始化,用来存放环境变量结构体,然后将 flash 中的环境变量拷贝到内存中。
  5. 初始化sdio设备
  6. 初始化网络设备
  7. 进去命令循环(即整个boot的工作循环),接受用户从串口输入的命令,然后进行相应的工作

main_loop

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void main_loop(void)
{
...
bootstage_mark_name(BOOTSTAGE_ID_MAIN_LOOP, "main_loop");

/*刷新LCD*/
#if defined(CONFIG_UPDATE_TFTP)
update_tftp(0UL);
#endif /* CONFIG_UPDATE_TFTP */
/*从环境变量中取得bootdelay 内核等待延时*/
#ifdef CONFIG_BOOTDELAY
process_boot_delay();
#endif
/*
* Main Loop for Monitor Command Processing
*/
for (;;) {
len = readline (CONFIG_SYS_PROMPT);

flag = 0; /* assume no special flags for now */
if (len > 0)
strcpy (lastcommand, console_buffer);
else if (len == 0)
flag |= CMD_FLAG_REPEAT;

if (len == -1)
puts ("<INTERRUPT>\n");
else
rc = run_command(lastcommand, flag); //执行命令

if (rc <= 0) {
/* invalid command or not repeatable, forget it */
lastcommand[0] = 0;
}
}
}

file:common/main.c

do_bootm

将内核解压缩,然后调用do_bootm_linux引导内核

do_bootm_linux

启动内核

参考

  1. uboot的relocation原理详细分析
-------------本文结束感谢您的阅读-------------
  • 本文作者: Winddoing
  • 本文链接: https://winddoing.github.io/post/47503.html
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